Gradle是一个工具,同时它也是一个编程框架。前面也提到过,使用这个工具可以完成app的编译打包等工作。当然你也可以用它干其他的事情。

相关
Gradle的官网:
http://gradle.org/
https://docs.gradle.org/current/dsl/
https://docs.gradle.org/current/javadoc/org/gradle/api/Project.html

settings.gradle
settings.gradle除了可以include外,还可以设置一些函数。这些函数会在gradle构建整个工程任务的时候执行,所以,可以在settings做一些初始化的工作。比如:我的settings.gradle的内容:

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//定义一个名为initMinshengGradleEnvironment的函数。该函数内部完成一些初始化操作//比如创建特定的目录,设置特定的参数等
def initMinshengGradleEnvironment(){
println"initialize Minsheng Gradle Environment ....."
......//干一些special的私活....
println"initialize Minsheng Gradle Environment completes..."
}
//settings.gradle加载的时候,会执行initMinshengGradleEnvironment
initMinshengGradleEnvironment()
//include也是一个函数:
include 'CPosSystemSdk' , 'CPosDeviceSdk' , 'CPosSdkDemo','CPosDeviceServerApk','CPosSystemSdkWizarPosImpl'

##gradle命令介绍

  1. gradle projects查看工程信息
  2. gradle tasks查看任务信息
  3. gradle task-name执行任务
    列出了好多任务,这时候就可以通过 gradle 任务名来执行某个任务。这和make xxx很像。比如:
    gradle clean是执行清理任务,和make clean类似。
    gradle properites用来查看所有属性信息。
    gradle tasks会列出每个任务的描述,通过描述,我们大概能知道这些任务是干什么的…..。然后gradle task-name执行它就好。
    这里要强调一点:Task和Task之间往往是有关系的,这就是所谓的依赖关系。比如,assemble task就依赖其他task先执行,assemble才能完成最终的输出

##Gradle基本类型

gradle基于groovy, gradle提供的基本类型也都实现了script.并且提供了大量的方法和属性

Build script -> Project (每个project的build.gradle也就是一个project)
Init script -> Gradle
Settings script -> Settings (对应setting.gradle)

  • Project 每个project的build.gradle都会转换成一个project
  • Gradle
  • Settings 每一个settings.gradle都会转换成一个Settings对象

##Gradle 生命周期
1.初始化创建Settings实例
2.解析settings.gradle 构造各个Project实例
3.解析每个Project对应的build.gradle,配置相应Project

即 setting.gradle -> 各个build.gradle

Paste_Image.png
Paste_Image.png
上面第一张图是settings.gradle的配置
第二张是执行assemble 打印出来的执行顺序,也就是说settings.gradle先执行
然后是root.gradle (也就是我们根目录下的gradle) 接下来就是按照settings.gradle配置顺序进行执行~

每个对象的方法就不再赘述,api中都有。

##实战
root gradle

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// Top-level build file where you can add configuration options common to all sub-projects/modules.
buildscript {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
dependencies {
classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:1.2.3'
}
}
allprojects {//对所有projects都起作用
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
}
ext {//定义所有project公用参数 使用rootProject.ext.XX就能拿到相应对象
compileSdk = 23
minSdk = 11
targetSdk = 23
support = "23.1.1"
buildTools = "23.0.2"
glide = "3.6.0"
okio = "1.4.0"
okhttp = "2.4.0"
fabric = "2.4.0"
leakcanary = "1.3.1"
logansquare = "1.1.0"
dagger = "2.0.1"
packageName = "com.evilsoulm.keep_nice"
butterknife = "7.0.1"
retrofit = "2.0.0-beta2"
greendao = "2.0.0"
}
task clean(type: Delete) {
delete rootProject.buildDir
}

commonandroid.gradle android项目共用gradle 相当于基类 可以通过apply from 引入

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android {
compileSdkVersion rootProject.ext.compileSdk
buildToolsVersion rootProject.ext.buildTools
defaultConfig {
minSdkVersion rootProject.ext.minSdk
targetSdkVersion rootProject.ext.targetSdk
}
compileOptions {
sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_7
targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_7
}
dexOptions {
javaMaxHeapSize "2048m"
}
dexOptions {
preDexLibraries project.hasProperty('debug')
incremental project.hasProperty('debug')
}
packagingOptions {
exclude '.readme'
exclude 'LICENSE.txt'
exclude 'META-INF/DEPENDENCIES'
exclude 'META-INF/dependencies'
exclude 'META-INF/DEPENDENCIES.txt'
exclude 'META-INF/dependencies.txt'
}
}

commonproject.gradle project项目共用gradle

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repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
apply plugin: 'findbugs'
apply plugin: 'checkstyle'
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apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
apply plugin: 'com.neenbedankt.android-apt'
apply from: rootProject.file('basegradle/commonProject.gradle')//引入commonProject
apply from: rootProject.file('basegradle/commonAndroid.gradle')//引入commonAndroid
buildscript {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
dependencies {
classpath 'com.neenbedankt.gradle.plugins:android-apt:1.8'
}
}
android {
defaultConfig {
applicationId rootProject.ext.packageName
versionCode 1
versionName "1.0"
}
buildTypes {
debug {
minifyEnabled false
debuggable true
jniDebuggable true
}
release {
minifyEnabled true
shrinkResources false
debuggable false
jniDebuggable false
zipAlignEnabled true
proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
}
}
configurations {
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.android', module: 'android'
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.android', module: 'support-v4'
all*.exclude group: 'asm', module: 'asm'
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.code.gson'
}
productFlavors {//很棒的一个参数可以在底下更改包名,资源等。。
normal {
}
ddebug {
}
}
}
dependencies {
compile project(':common')
compile project(':model')
compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:' + rootProject.ext.support
compile 'com.android.support:design:' + rootProject.ext.support
compile 'com.squareup.okio:okio:' + rootProject.ext.okio
compile('com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:' + rootProject.ext.okhttp) {
exclude group: 'com.squareup.okio', module: 'okio'
}
//图片加载
compile 'com.github.bumptech.glide:glide:' + rootProject.ext.glide
//leakcanary
debugCompile 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android:' + rootProject.ext.leakcanary
releaseCompile 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android-no-op:' + rootProject.ext.leakcanary
//logansquare
apt 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare-compiler:' + rootProject.ext.logansquare
compile 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare:' + rootProject.ext.logansquare
//dagger2 注入
apt 'com.google.dagger:dagger-compiler:' + rootProject.ext.dagger
compile 'com.google.dagger:dagger:' + rootProject.ext.dagger
//UI注入
compile 'com.jakewharton:butterknife:' + rootProject.ext.butterknife
//rxjava
compile 'io.reactivex:rxjava:1.0.10'
compile 'io.reactivex:rxandroid:0.24.0'
//网络框架
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:retrofit:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:converter-gson:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:adapter-rxjava:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
}

##写法2
另一种写法就是只有一个root.build 通过configure进行每个module的配置 ,每个module下的build.gradle就可以删除了~统一在root.build下进行管理
eg.只写了一个module

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buildscript {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
dependencies {
classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:1.2.3'
}
}
allprojects {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
}
ext {
compileSdk = 23
minSdk = 11
targetSdk = 23
support = "23.1.1"
buildTools = "23.0.2"
glide = "3.6.0"
okio = "1.4.0"
okhttp = "2.4.0"
fabric = "2.4.0"
leakcanary = "1.3.1"
logansquare = "1.1.0"
dagger = "2.0.1"
packageName = "com.evilsoulm.keep_nice"
butterknife = "7.0.1"
retrofit = "2.0.0-beta2"
greendao = "2.0.0"
}
configure(project(':app').subprojects) {//相当于放在app下的build.gradle
apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
apply plugin: 'com.neenbedankt.android-apt'
apply from: rootProject.file('basegradle/commonProject.gradle')
apply from: rootProject.file('basegradle/commonAndroid.gradle')
buildscript {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
dependencies {
classpath 'com.neenbedankt.gradle.plugins:android-apt:1.8'
}
}
android {
defaultConfig {
applicationId rootProject.ext.packageName
versionCode 1
versionName "1.0"
}
buildTypes {
debug {
minifyEnabled false
debuggable true
jniDebuggable true
}
release {
minifyEnabled true
shrinkResources false
debuggable false
jniDebuggable false
zipAlignEnabled true
proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
}
}
configurations {
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.android', module: 'android'
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.android', module: 'support-v4'
all*.exclude group: 'asm', module: 'asm'
all*.exclude group: 'com.google.code.gson'
}
productFlavors {
normal {
}
ddebug {
}
}
}
dependencies {
compile project(':common')
compile project(':model')
compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:' + rootProject.ext.support
compile 'com.android.support:design:' + rootProject.ext.support
compile 'com.squareup.okio:okio:' + rootProject.ext.okio
compile('com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:' + rootProject.ext.okhttp) {
exclude group: 'com.squareup.okio', module: 'okio'
}
//图片加载
compile 'com.github.bumptech.glide:glide:' + rootProject.ext.glide
//leakcanary
debugCompile 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android:' + rootProject.ext.leakcanary
releaseCompile 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android-no-op:' + rootProject.ext.leakcanary
//logansquare
apt 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare-compiler:' + rootProject.ext.logansquare
compile 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare:' + rootProject.ext.logansquare
//dagger2 注入
apt 'com.google.dagger:dagger-compiler:' + rootProject.ext.dagger
compile 'com.google.dagger:dagger:' + rootProject.ext.dagger
//UI注入
compile 'com.jakewharton:butterknife:' + rootProject.ext.butterknife
//rxjava
compile 'io.reactivex:rxjava:1.0.10'
compile 'io.reactivex:rxandroid:0.24.0'
//网络框架
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:retrofit:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:converter-gson:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:adapter-rxjava:' + rootProject.ext.retrofit
}
}

##属性
如果是单个脚本,则不需要考虑属性的跨脚本传播,但是Gradle往往包含不止一个build.gradle文件,比如我设置的utils.gradle,settings.gradle。如何在多个脚本中设置属性呢?
Gradle提供了一种名为extra property的方法。extra property是额外属性的意思,在第一次定义该属性的时候需要通过ext前缀来标示它是一个额外的属性。定义好之后,后面的存取就不需要ext前缀了。ext属性支持Project和Gradle对象。即Project和Gradle对象都可以设置ext属性

在上面的例子中其实我们已经用到了ext来定义一些常亮,eg:packageName,compileversion等
现在结合groovy相关知识,再重构下上面的gradle配置.

定义一个const.gradle用来管理我们的常亮和各个库所依赖的库.

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ext {
android_const = [
compileSdk : 23,
minSdk : 11,
targetSdk : 23,
support : "23.1.1",
buildTools : "23.0.2",
packageName: "com.evilsoulm.keep_nice"
]
dep_const = [
glide : "3.6.0",
okio : "1.4.0",
okhttp : "2.4.0",
fabric : "2.4.0",
leakcanary : "1.3.1",
logansquare: "1.1.0",
dagger : "2.0.1",
butterknife: "7.0.1",
retrofit : "2.0.0-beta2",
greendao : "2.0.0"
]
app_dep = [
"appcompat-v7" : 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:' + android_const.support,
"design" : 'com.android.support:design:' + android_const.support,
"okio" : 'com.squareup.okio:okio:' + dep_const.okio,
"okhttp" : 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:' + dep_const.okhttp,
"glide" : 'com.github.bumptech.glide:glide:' + dep_const.glide,
"debug_leakcanary" : 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android:' + dep_const.leakcanary,
"release_leakcanary": 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android-no-op:' + dep_const.leakcanary,
"glide" : 'com.github.bumptech.glide:glide:' + dep_const.glide,
"apt_logansquare" : 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare-compiler:' + dep_const.logansquare,
"logansquare" : 'com.bluelinelabs:logansquare:' + dep_const.logansquare,
"apt_dagger" : 'com.google.dagger:dagger-compiler:' + dep_const.dagger,
"dagger" : 'com.google.dagger:dagger:' + dep_const.dagger,
"butterknife" : 'com.jakewharton:butterknife:' + dep_const.butterknife,
"rxjava" : 'io.reactivex:rxjava:1.0.10',
"rxandroid" : 'io.reactivex:rxandroid:0.24.0',
"retrofit" : 'com.squareup.retrofit:retrofit:' + dep_const.retrofit,
"converter-gson" : 'com.squareup.retrofit:converter-gson:' + dep_const.retrofit,
"adapter-rxjava" : 'com.squareup.retrofit:adapter-rxjava:' + dep_const.retrofit
]
model_generator_dep = [
"greendao-generator": 'de.greenrobot:greendao-generator:' + dep_const.greendao
]
model_dep = [
"greendao": 'de.greenrobot:greendao:' + dep_const.greendao,
"android" : 'com.google.android:android:4.1.1.4'
]
}

根目录的build.gradle

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// Top-level build file where you can add configuration options common to all sub-projects/modules.
apply from: "basegradle/const.gradle" //引入const.gradle 有点继承的感觉 也就是现在rootProject也就拥有const.gradle里的方法和变量
buildscript {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
dependencies {
classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:1.2.3'
}
}
allprojects {
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
}

使用
//老的版本

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apply plugin: 'java'
dependencies {
compile 'de.greenrobot:greendao:' + rootProject.ext.greendao
compile(group: 'com.google.android', name: 'android', version: '4.1.1.4')
}

改造后 简单清楚

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apply plugin: 'java'
dependencies {
compile rootProject.ext.model_dep.greendao
compile rootProject.ext.model_dep.android
}

查看依赖树

1
gradle dependencies

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task helloShortCut << {
println 'short cut'
}
//打印0道9
task count << {
10.times { print("$it ") }
}
task intro(dependsOn: helloShortCut) << {
print "i am gradle"
}
//动态task
10.times {
time ->
task "task$time" << {
println " i am task number $time"
}
}
task8.dependsOn task1, task2, task3, task4
task hello << {
println 'Hello Earth'
}
hello.doFirst {
println 'Hello Venus'
}
hello.doLast {
println 'Hello Mars'
}
hello << {
println 'Hello Jupiter'
}
task loadFile << {
def files = file('../antLoadfileResources').listFiles().sort();
files.each {
File file ->
if (file.isFile()) {
}
}
}
gradle.taskGraph.whenReady {taskGraph ->
if (taskGraph.hasTask("assembleSpeedCompilation")) {
println '_____________________________assembleSpeedCompilationDebug'
} else {
println '_____________________________--不包含'
}
}
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//显示依赖包的存储路径task
showRemoteDependencies << {
configurations.compile.each { println it
}}

demo->github

其他gradle: